SRC Functions

SRC Functions

All tql scripts must start with one of the data source functions.

There are serveral SRC functions are included. For example, SQL() produces records by querying machbase-neo database or even external (bridged) database with the given sql statement. FAKE() generates artifitial data. CSV() can read csv data, BYTES() reads arbitrary binary data from file system or client’s HTTP request and MQTT payload.



Syntax: SQL( [bridge(),] sqltext [, params...])

  • bridge() bridge(’name’) If a bridge is given, the SQL query is executed on the bridge
  • sqltext string : SQL SELECT statement to retrieve data from database. Use backtick(`) for multi-line sql string.
  • params : Varidic arguments for the bind arguments for the query.


  • Query to machbase
SQL (`
    SELECT time, value 
    FROM example 
    WHERE name ='temperature'
    LIMIT 10000
  • Query to bridge database
SQL( bridge('sqlite'), `SELECT * FROM EXAMPLE`)
  • With variadic arguments
SQL(`SELECT time, value FROM example LIMIT ?`, param('limit') ?? 10)
    `SELECT time, value FROM example WHERE name = ?`,
    param('name') ?? "temperature")


Syntax: QUERY( fields..., from(), between() [, limit()] )

  • fields string : column names, multiple columns are possible.

QUERY() source function provides same functionality with SQL(), but it simplifies the usage by standardization option functions other than using the raw SQL statement.

This function actully works equivalent to SQL() but it takes query conditions via simplified functions instead of SQL statement. It assigns time range condition easier way than using WHERE condition in SQL statement.

The example below procudes data by query SELECT time, value FROM example WHERE NAME = 'temperature' AND time BETWEEN.... The base ’time’ column will be always first column of the SELECT query, even it is not specified in fields arguments.

    from('example', 'temperature'),
    between('last-10s', 'last')


Syntax: from( table, tag [, time_column [, name_column] ] )

It provides table name and tag name to QUERY() function generating SQL internally. It may equivalent to ... FROM <table> WHERE NAME = <tag> ....

  • table string table name
  • tag string tag name
  • time_column string specify “time” column name, if omitted default is 'time'.
  • name_column string specify “name” column name, if omitted default is 'name'. Since v8.0.5


Syntax: between( fromTime, toTime [, period] )

It provides time range condition to QUERY() function generating SQL internally. It may equivalent to ... WHERE ... TIME BETWEEN <fromTime> AND <toTime>....

  • fromTime string,number time expressesion with ’now’ and ’last’ as string, Or assign number as unix epoch time in nanosecond
  • toTime string,number time expression
  • period string,number duration expression, Or assign number for the unix epoch time in nanoseconds. Logically only positive period makes sense.

You can specify fromTime and toTime with ’now’ and ’last’ with delta duration expression. For example, 'now-1h30m' specifies the time that 1 hour 30 minutes before from now. 'last-30s' means 30 seconds before the lastest(=max) time of the base_time_coolumn.

If period is specified it will generate ‘GROUP BY’ experssion with aggregation SQL functions.

If it is required to use string expressions for the fromTime, toTime instead of unix epoch nano seconds, use parseTime() to convert string expression to time value.


Syntax: parseTime(str, format, timezone)

  • str string time expression in string according to the given format
  • format string specifies the format of the time expression
  • timezone tz() specifies the time zone


parseTime("2023-03-01 14:01:02", "DEFAULT", tz("UTC"))
parseTime("2023-03-01 14:01:02", "DEFAULT", tz("Local"))
parseTime("2023-03-01 14:01:02", "DEFAULT", tz("Europe/Paris"))
  • Combine with between()
between( parseTime("2023-03-01 14:00:00", "DEFAULT", tz("Local")),
         parseTime("2023-03-01 14:05:00", "DEFAULT", tz("Local")))


Syntax: limit( [offset ,] count )

It will be translated into SELECT... LIMIT offset, count statement.

  • offset int default is 0. if omitted
  • count int


Syntax: CSV( file(file_path_string) | payload() [,field(idx, type, name)...[, header(bool)]] )

Load CSV and yield key-value records, the key is generated in sequence number and the fields of CSV become the value of the record. The string parameter of ‘file’ should be absolute path to the CSV. If payload() is used, it will reads CSV from HTTP POST request body stream. It is useful to make an API that writes data into database when remote client sends data by HTTP POST.

  • file() | payload() input stream
  • field(idx, type, name) specifying fields
  • header(bool) specifies if the first line of input stream is a header


// Read CSV from HTTP request body.
// ex)
// barn,1677646800,0.03135
// dew_point,1677646800,24.4
// dishwasher,1677646800,3.33e-05
    field(0, stringType(), 'name'),
    field(1, datetimeType('s'), 'time'),
    field(2, doubleType(), 'value'),

Combination of CSV() and APPEND() as above example, it is simple, useful. Be aware that it is 5 times slower than command line import command, but stil faster than INSERT() function when writing more than serveral thousands records per a HTTP request.

Use ?? operator to make it works with or without HTTP POST request.

CSV(payload() ?? file('/absolute/path/to/data.csv'),
    field(0, doubleType(), 'freq'),
    field(1, doubleType(), 'ampl')


Syntax: file(path)

Open the given file and returns input stream for the content. the path should be the absolute path to the file.

  • path string path to the file to open, or http url where to get resource from.

If path starts with “http://” or “https://”, it retrieves the content of the specified http url Since v8.0.7 . Otherwise it is looking for the path on the file system.

The code below shows how to call a remote HTTP api with file() that it actually invokes machbase-neo itself for the demonstration purpose, the SQL query which safely url escaped by escapeParam().

CSV( file(``+
        `q=`+escapeParam(`select * from example limit 10`)
CSV() // or JSON()


Syntax: payload()

Returns the input stream of the request content if the tql script has been invoked from HTTP POST or MQTT PUBLISH.


Syntax: field(idx, typefunc, name)

Specify field-types of the input CSV data.

  • idx int 0-based index of the field.
  • typefunc sepcify the type of the field. (see below)
  • name string specify the name of the field.
type functiontype

The stringType() and doubleType() take no arguments, datetimeType() functiont takes one or two paramters for proper conversion of date-time data.

If the input data of the field specifies time in unix epoch time, specify the one of the time units ns, us, ms and s.

  • datetimeType('s')
  • datetimeType('ms')
  • datetimeType('us')
  • datetimeType('ns')

The input field represets time in human readable format, it is requires to specifying how to parse them including time zone.

  • datetimeType('DEFAULT', 'Local')
CSV(payload() ??
`name,2006-01-02 15:04:05.999,10`,
field(1, datetimeType('DEFAULT', 'Local'), 'time'))
  • datetimeType('RFC3339', 'EST')
CSV(payload() ??
field(1, datetimeType('RFC3339', 'EST'), 'time'))

If the timzone is omitted, it assumes ‘UTC’ by default.

  • datetimeType('RC822')

The first argument of the datetimeType() directs how to parse the input data that uses the same syntax with timeformat() function. Please refer to the description of the timeformat() function for the timeformat spec.


Syntax: BYTES( src [, separator(char), trimspace(boolean) ] )

Syntax: STRING( src [, separator(char), trimspace(boolean) ] )

  • src data source, it can be one of payload(), file() and a constant text string.
  • separator(char) optional setseparator("\n") to read a line by line, or omit it to read whole string in a time.
  • trimspace(boolean) optional trim spaces, default is false

Split the input content by separator and yield records that separated sub content as value and the key is increment number of records.


  • STRING('A,B,C', separator(",")) yields 3 records ["A"], ["B"] and ["C"].
  • STRING('A,B,C') yields 1 record ["A,B,C"].

The both of BYTES() and STRING() works exactly same, except the value types that yields, as the function’s name implies, BYTES() yeilds value in ‘array of byte’ and STRING() yeidls string value.

STRING(payload() ?? `12345
                    78901`, separator("\n"))

The example code above generates 3 records ["12345"], ["␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣23456"], ["␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣78901"].

STRING(payload() ?? `12345
                    78901`, separator("\n"), trimspace(true))

The example code above generates 3 records ["12345"], ["23456"], ["78901"].

STRING( file(``), separator("\n") )

It retrieves the content from the http address. file() supports http url Since v8.0.7 .


Syntax: ARGS() Since v8.0.7

ARGS generates a record that values are passed by parent TQL flow as arguments. It is purposed to be used as a SRC of a sub flow within a statement.

FAKE( json({
    [ 1, "hello" ],
    [ 2, "world" ]
WHEN( value(0) == 2, do( value(0), strToUpper(value(1)), {
    WHEN( true, doLog("OUTPUT:", value(0), value(1)) )

The code print log message on the output cosole.



Syntax: FAKE( generator )

  • generator one of the oscillator(), meshgrid(), linspace(), csv(), json()

Producing “fake” data by given generator.


Syntax: oscillator( freq() [, freq()...], range() )

Generating wave data by given frequency and time range. If provide multiple freq() arguments, it composites waves.


Syntax: freq( frequency, amplitude [, bias, phase])

It produce sine wave by time amplitude * SIN( 2*Pi * frequency * time + phase) + bias.

  • frequence number frequency in Hertz (Hz).
  • amplitude number
  • bias number
  • phase number in radian


Syntax: range( baseTime, deltaDuration, duration )

It specifies time range from basetime+deltaDuration to baseTime+deltaDuration+duration.

  • baseTime string|number ’now’ and ’last’ is available for string type, Or assign number as unix epoch time in nanosecond
  • deltaDuration string|number duration expression, Or assign number for the unix epoch time in nanoseconds. ex) '-1d2h30m', '1s100ms'
  • duration string|number duration expression, Or assign number for the unix epoch time in nanoseconds. Logically only positive period makes sense.


Syntax: linspace(start, stop, num)

It generates 1 dimension linear space.


Syntax: meshgrid(xsereis, yseries)

It generates {key:index, value:[][][]{x[n], y[m]}}


Syntax: csv(content) Since v8.0.7

  • content string csv content

It generates records from the given csv content.


Syntax: json({...}) Since v8.0.7

It generates records from the given multiple json array.

Last updated on